The district is named after Mir Jaffar Khan Jamali, a Muslim League veteran from Balochistan and a close friend of Quaid‑e‑Azam. He contributed towards the promotion of the Muslim League cause in the area. He died on April 7, 1967 and was buried in Rojhan Jamali.
Before the creation of Jaffarabad District, during the “One‑Unit” period, this district was known as sub‑division Jhatpat and was a part of Jacobabad district of Sindh province. Jhatpat as a sub‑division is very old. It was raised to sub‑division level on 12 January 1932 with Captain Hoc Bland as the first Assistant Commissioner. On the dissolution of “One‑Unit” in 1970 it was included in Sibi district and remained within the jurisdiction of Sibi district till January 1975. In 1975, when Nasirabad district came into existence, Jhatpat was included in Nasirabad district. The Usta Mohammad sub‑division was a part of Sindh upto very recent years. Usta Mohammad is named after Maulvi Usta Mohammad.
Jaffarabad is at a main‑road to Sindh province. Its boundaries link five districts: Larkarna, Jacobabad (Sindh), Nasirabad, Jhall Magsi, and Dera Bugti.